Thursday, December 5, 2019
Question: Discuss about the Challenges Facing New South Wales Police Service. Answer: Introduction The New South Wales police (NSW) is a government Organization and just like any other organization. In every organization, there are rules and regulations that govern it, and this is not an exemption for the New South Wales police as an organization. Every organization has a management, and it is the mandate or the responsibility of themanagement to take care of the organization for a better outcome.Management is a process of continued and related activities that involve achieving the organization's goals by working with human resource and other organizational resources. The NSW police Service requires bettermanagement or rather an improvedmanagement system to ensure that both the division senior officers, detective officers and the general duty workers work in accordance with the NSW police service, Statement of Values and Code of Conduct and Ethics. The paper will explore the challenges facing the New South Wales Police Service by incorporating a management theory to determine the most effective solutions. Management challenges NSW Police Service has three identifiable management challenges that could easily affect the outcome of the organization as a whole. The first management challenge is; Organizing, this involves putting together the identified activities, ideas, and resources into action to achieve the organizational goals, the activities or tasks should be organized in a way that each individual's outputs contribute to the success of various departments, which in turn endow to success of a branch, and most importantly adds up to the organizations success (Schermerhorn, 2011). According to the reform that was initiated in response to Wood Royal Commission into corruption in NSW Police Service that, the main activity was the use of cross-functional teams and the transference of democratic control mechanisms by dispersing the power that previously dominant divisions and individuals had acquired. This was a great idea for the seniors to call for an open forum to discuss the implemented changes within the NSW Police but it is the seniors mandate to make sure that everyone participates and give out their opinion on how to approach and go about the implemented changes, but, this is contrary to what the seniors are doing, this is different from what is stipulated in their code of conduct and ethics rule number 4 which states treat everyone with respect, courtesy and fairness and 9 which states that not to make improper use of their position or NSW information or resources. The divisional seniors and the detectives take charge and do not give chances or opportunities for the General duty workers to share their opinions for the betterment of the entire organization (Gordon Grant, 2006). The second management challenge is Influencing; this is also called motivating, leading or directing. Influencing requires the managers to motivate the organization members in the direction that helps them achieve the given goal or objective. According to this case study, the divisional seniors misuse their authorities and mandates as seniors to influence or rather to lead their fellow organizational members to the direction that doesnt help it achieve their given goal as a whole. They use their positions and powers to oppress the other team members views and opinion and even use threat for example at one point in the meeting, one detective demands that the other members of his team to fill out forms in a certain manner, adding or Ill throw them back to your faces (Gordon Grant, 2006). This statement alone creates an inferiority complex among other team members, diminishing their morale to contribute positively to the organization. The seniors are also influencing the other officers like the detectives and the team leaders to maintain their hard stands on the other team members and this is clearly seen on how each and every one of them addresses the other team members, and even how they refer to them while addressing them despite knowing their names. This is a management challenge because if they were all given an equal fair hearing and an opportunity to speak out their ideas and opinions it could positively improve things like communication, among them since communication is key to change (Aepli, Ribaux Summerfield, 2011). The third management challenge seen in this case study is coordinating. Coordinating function of leadership is very key because it ensures that all functions of the organization are in order and operating successfully for the betterment of the organization. It is of importance that an organization work together or rather coordinate in order to achieve a particular stipulated goal (Bruijn, Heuvelhof Veld, 2010). Coordinating brings together all members of New South Wales Police Service to work towards getting a common ground on the recently implemented changes within the organization. But in this case, scenario coordinating is not applied anywhere. This is noticeable on how the senior conduct the meeting and how he interrupts the others while they are talking, apart from that there is no protocol on who is to speak after who and the kind of language to be used during the meeting. You find that the meeting is so disorganized in a way that only the senior, the detective and team leader s are talking at random generalizing their ideas to match that of the other team members. They do not give other team members an equal opportunity to share information that could be of benefit to the organization. At the end of the meeting, the seniors make conclusions based on their own their own ideas and contributions and expecting the other members to comply with their final decisions. This kind of management leadership cannot bring about any change. I believe that for change to happen, the voice of the oppressed (meaning the other team members) should be heard as well by being given an opportunity to speak out their thoughts on how changes should be achieved (Teale, 2003). Management Concepts Management is a process and if the New South Wales Police Service can put all the mentioned above challenges into practice then it is definite that the NSW police service will have a great improvement and coming into a common consensus. The discussed challenges namely; organizing, influencing/directing and coordinating all relate to leadership and decision-making concept. This concept explains that management may be referred to the art and science of planning, organizing, influencing human power used to control the constraint and utilize the resources for the benefit of the organization and its members (Mills, 2007) In this case study organizing, influencing and coordinating are portrayed as the major management challenges by the NSW police service, the leadership and decision-making concept should be used to overcome the challenges faced by the NSW police service. For example, organizing as a management challenge goes hand in hand with this concept in that, if the leaders develop th eir organizational structure in a way that everyone is involved and participates in various task force and decision-making process then the ultimate outcome is going to be successful for the good of the organization and the human resource as well (Hannagan Bennett, 2008). The second identified management challenge discussed in the case study was influencing. Influencing relates to the human relation concept in that, management begins with leadership, and the leaders should have good relationships with all members of the organization in order for them to move together as a team. If the leadership has bad relation then definitely this affects the productivity of the organization . Leaders are supposed to act as role models to the other staffs, good human relation influences the other staffs to be more optimistic and aggressive about their job which in turn will enhance the companys productivity (Griffin, 2007). This can only be achieved if the leader understands other members personalities, values, attitudes, and emotions. In this case study, the seniors behave in an unprofessional way and without respect and not recognizing the diversity (Newton, 2011). The way they relate to the other team members is alarming, they do not have respect and courtesy for the other members, for example when they constantly interrupted them whenever they stood to speak and another the second scenario is when the detective does not recognize the rest of the members by their names but instead referring to their team members as they. A good leader should allow for interactions and understand each and every members thoughts and feelings about particular issues being discussed (Hannagan, 2002). The third management challenge discussed in the case study is coordinating. The integration concept involves coordinating, I can imagine of an organization without coordination, where things are done without consultation and involvement of both parties. Such kind of an organization is not likely to do well in achieving its goals and objectives. Integration is a way of pulling material and human resources together towards achieving a common goal (Griffin, 2007). If the leaders do not involve the human resource by working together towards making organizational decisions then it clearly means that their contributions are not needed and that, the leaders have the rights and privileges of making decisions on behalf of the rest. In this case study, you find that the seniors, including detectives and the team leaders, do not mind about other members decisions, they care about protecting their positions and forgetting that they are supposed to involve each and everyone in the development. An d this is expressed in the manner in which the discussion is being carried out shows that the hierarchy of top to bottom is applied. Whereby its only those at the top management are allowed to have the final say (Newstrom, 2015). Management Theory Having studied this case study I am certain that the NSW police service can use a different kind of approach to convey information and to make everyone feel valued. The three discussed management challenges above namely, organizing, influencing and coordinating can be resolved to change the current situation at the NSW police service. Theory x and theory y have been used often to compare two different kinds of management to create a great outcome in the organization. Theory x and theory y believe that the main key to our work and life success is to create a conducive environment where individuals feel appreciated and recognized by their personal difference. This theory acknowledges our difference in terms of wants, needs, values, expectations, and goals. If the NSW police service gets to use theory x and theory y then it means that the perception that the seniors have believed that they have the right to command and dictate what the rest will diminish with time. Our personal theory u sually impacts the motivational approaches we do choose to deal with such differences, such philosophies or attitudes towards others can be mapped to theory x and theory y (Sorensen, 2015). Theory x defines the exact management at the NSW police service, this theory states that the management is authoritarian, repressive, with very tight control to its members. The end result of this kind of management is, there is no development, production is limited and because of the threats, reprimands, suspension, termination, and financial penalties lead to depressed culture. Unlike theory y where there is an opportunity for advancement, responsibility, recognition, financial rewards and praise. This in return will create an environment of fear and managers or senior are viewed with distrust and seen as dictators rather than team leaders or team players (Cardy, 2004). The best theory that can be used to resolve the management challenges at NSW police service is theory y. This theory assumes that some people can be personally self-driven and take responsibilities. The management in theory y believes that authority should be decentralized to team members to ensure that, they have all the available resources required to achieve their organizational goal. This type of management is free and developmental, there is control, achievements and continuous improvement achieved by enabling empowering and giving responsibilities (Jackson, 2000). By using theory y there definitely will be a high level of organization experienced within management because the authority is decentralized down to the employees and it is their responsibility to manage the organization. In this same theory, you find that influencing or rather directing is well demonstrated in the way the management. The fact that the management recognizes the team members and even give them financial rewards for a good job done, shows how influential the management is (Kreitner, 2009). Finally, there is a lot of coordination in theory y and this is evident on how the team members socialize with the top management. The management understands and respects everyone within the organization, hence creating a good working environment for both the management and the team towards achieving their ultimate goal. Conclusion In summary, the challenges experienced in the NSW police service has been discussed in the above paragraphs and the solution on how to curb the management challenges has also been discussed. According to this case study, there is poor management in the NSW police service and this is the main reason as to why all the above-mentioned challenges are experienced. If the seniors can learn how to first deal with the members in a respectful and understanding manner, by making them feel valued and appreciated despite their position in the hierarchy, then this can be the first step to solving the challenges they are experiencing. Communication is the key to organizational achievements, and the seniors at the NSW police service should take this as a challenge, by giving everyone an equal chance to air out their grievances and problems so that they can all feel included and this will create a great impact on the organizations future performance. References Hannagan, T., Bennett, R. 2008.Management: Concepts practices. Harlow, England: Financial Times/Prentice Hall Hannagan, T. 2002.Mastering strategic management. Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave. Davis, K. 1977.Organizational behavior: A book of readings. New York: McGraw-Hill. Newstrom, J. W. 2015.Organizational behavior: Human behavior at work. Sorensen, P. F., Yaeger, T. F. McGregor, D., Cutcher-Gershenfeld, J. 2006.The human side of enterprise.2015.Theory X and theory Y. Mills, A. J. 2007.Organizational behaviour in a global context. Peterborough, Ont: BroadviewPress. Schermerhorn, J. R. 2011.Management. Hoboken, N.J: Wiley. Newton, R. 2011.The management book. Harlow: Financial Times Prentice Hall. Jackson, M. C. 2000.Systems approaches to management. New York, NY [u.a.: Kluwer Academic/Plenum. Cardy, R. L. 2004.Performance management: Concepts, skills and exercises. Armonk, NY Kreitner, R. 2009.Management. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co.a.: Sharpe. Griffin, R. W. 2007.Principles of management. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. Aepli, P., Ribaux, O., Summerfield, E. 2011.Decision making in policing: Operations and management. Lausanne, Switzerland: EPFL Press. Teale, M. 2003.Management decision making: Towards an integrated approach. Harlow, Essex: Pearson. Bruijn, J. A., Heuvelhof, E. F., Veld, R. J. 2010.Process management: Why projectmanagement fails in complex decision making processes. Gordon, R., Grant, D. Corridors of Power: Critical reflections and alternative viewpoints, inMurray, P., Poole, D., and Jones, G., Contemporary Issues in Management and Organizational Behaviour, 2006, pp 115-116, Melbourne, Thomson. Griffin, R. W. 2007.Fundamentals of management: core concepts and applications. Boston,Mass, Houghton Mifflin.
Thursday, November 28, 2019
Math Checkup Unit 1 Lesson 3 Essay Linear Functions Answer the following questions using what youve learned from this lesson. Write your responses in the space provided, and turn the assignment in to your instructor. 1. What is the slope of the line in the graph below? Show your work. Answer: To find out the slope, you must first take two separate points on the graph, such as (-5,-1) and (0,1). Then, itÃ¢â¬â¢s a simple matter to use the equation [pic] to find the slope: [pic]= [pic] 2. What is the slope of the line represented by the table of values below? How do you know? |x |y | |-2 |3 | -1 |4. 5 | |0 |6 | |1 |7. 5 | |2 |9 | Answer: By taking two different (x,y) values from the table and using the [pic] formula, we can easily find the slope. For example, letÃ¢â¬â¢s use (-2,3) and (0,6): [pic]= [pic] 3. Which of the following graphs could be the graph of y = 4x 5? Circle the letter of your answer(s) and explain your choice(s). a. b. c. d. 4. Write the equation of the line that passes through the points (3,7) and (-1,2) in: The slope is [pic]=[pic]=[pic] a. Point-slope form -2=[pic](x+1) b. Slope-intercept form y=[pic]x+[pic] 5. What is the slope of a line that is perpendicular to [pic]? Show your work. Answer: A line perpendicular to y=[pic]x would have a slope thatÃ¢â¬â¢s the reciprocal of the slope to y=[pic]x. We will write a custom essay sample on Math Checkup Unit 1 Lesson 3 specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Math Checkup Unit 1 Lesson 3 specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Math Checkup Unit 1 Lesson 3 specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer So the answer is [pic]. 6. Write the equation of a line passing through (0,6) and parallel to the line [pic]. Answer: y=[pic]x+6 7. Which of the following tables of values could have been generated by a linear function? How do you know? a. |x |y | |-2 | -3 | |-1 |-5 | 0 |-7 | |1 |-9 | |2 |-11 | b. |x |y | |-2 |1 | |-1 |3 | |0 |6 | |1 |10 | |2 |15 | c. |x |y | |-2 |1 | |-1 |1 | |0 |1 | |1 |1 | |2 |1 | Answer:Table A is a linear function, since it has an even distribution in both its x and y values. Table B is NOT a linear function, since it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have an even distribution in its y values. Table C is a linear function, since it has an even distribution in both its x and y values. 8. For each table in #7 that could have been generated by a linear function, calculate the slope of the line produced by that function. Answer: The rise over run formula [pic] shows the slope of a function table. Table A has a slope of [pic]= [pic]= -2. Table C has a slope of [pic]= [pic]= 0. 9. The cost of hosting a dinner in a particular restaurant is given by y = 18. x + 250, where x is the number of people at the dinner and y is dollars. What is the slope of this function? What does it mean in the context of the problem? Answer: The slope is 18. 5. It means that each person that attends costs $18. 50. 10. The cost of hosting a dinner in a particular restaurant is given by y = 18. 5x + 250, where x is the number of people at the dinner and y is dollars. What is the y-intercept of this function? What does it mean in the context of the problem? Answer: The y-intercept is 250. This means that you must pay $250 BEFORE you pay for each guestÃ¢â¬â¢s meal. 11.Write the equation of the line that is parallel to the x-axis and goes through the point (1,4). Answer: y=4 12. Does the point (2,6) lie on the line that connects (1,4) and (0,3)? Explain. Answer: The equation for the slope of (1,4) and (0,3) is y=x+3. Just plug (2,6) into the equation: 6=2+3? No. 6=/=2+3 So, no. (2,6) does not lie in the line that connects (1,4) and (0,3). 13. Which of the following pairs of lines are perpendicular? How do you know? Perpendicular? a. [pic] and [pic]No. Their slopes are NOT negative reciprocals. b. [pic]and [pic]Yes. Their slopes are negative reciprocals. c. [pic]and [pic]No.Their slopes are NOT negative reciprocals. 14. Jeremy uses the linear function G = 12h + 50 to represent the grade, G (in points out of 100), that he can earn on an exam as a function of h, the number of hours he spends studying for the exam. a. Identify the slope and y-intercept of Jeremys function and explain what they mean in the context of the problem. The slope is 12 and the y-intercept is 50. This means that JeremyÃ¢â¬â¢s score, if he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t study, would be 50. However, for every hour he studies, his score will go up 12 points. b. If Jeremy spends 3 hours studying for the exam, what grade does he expect to earn?Show your work. G = 12(3) + 50 = 36 + 50 = 86 Jeremy can expect to earn 86 points on the test if he studies for 3 hours. c. How many hours should Jeremy study if he wants to earn a perfect score on the exam? Show your work. 100 = 12h + 50 50 = 12h h = 4 hours, 10 minutes. 15. Suppose that demand, D, for a particular product is given by the function D = 100 2p, where p is the price in dollars of the product and D is the number of products that can be sold at that price. a. What does the slope of this function mean in the context of the problem? The slope shows that for each dollar the price increases, two less items will be sold. b.What price should be set in order to sell 75 items? Show your work. 75 = 100 2p 2p = 25 p = $12. 50 The price should be set as $12. 50 to sell 75 items. 16. Temperature may be given in degrees Celsius or in degrees Fahrenheit. The freezing point of water is 32(F or 0(C. The boiling point of water is 212(F or 100(C. a. Write the equation of a line that shows the relationship between degrees Fahrenheit and degrees Celsius. C=[pic](F-32) b. What is the temperature in Fahrenheit when it is 17oC? 62. 6 Fahrenheit c. What is the temperature in Celsius when it is 79oF? 26. 1 Celsius 17. Write at least three different expressions that mean slope. Answer: Slope=[pic]=[pic]=[pic] 18. In order to write the equation of a line, what two pieces of information do you need? (Hint: there may be more than one answer to this question. ) Answer: You must know both the slope and y-intercept to write the equation of a line. 19. The cost of manufacturing soccer balls is given by C = 24,000 + 7x, where x is the number of soccer balls produced. a. What is the slope of this equation and what does it represent in the context of the problem? The slope is 7, and that means each soccer ball costs $7. b. What is the y-intercept of this equation and what does it represent in the context of the problem?The y-intercept is 24,000, and it means that you have to pay $24,000 BEFORE making any soccer balls. c. If a manufacturer wanted to spend less than $30,000 to produce soccer balls, what is the maximum number of balls that can be produced? Show your work. 30000=24000+7x 6000=7x 857. 14=x The maximum number of soccer balls that can be made without spending above $30000 is 857. 20. Write the equation of a line that is parallel to the line connecting (2,5) and (-1,-4). Answer: y=3x+5 This is the only line with a negative slope and a negative intercept.
Sunday, November 24, 2019
Definition and Examples of Point of View Point of view is the perspective from which a speaker or writer recounts a narrative or presents information. Also known as a viewpoint. Depending on the topic, purpose, and audience, writers of nonfiction may rely on the first-person point of view (I, we), the second-person (you, your, youre), or the third-person (he, she, it, they). AuthorÃ Lee Gutkind points out that point of view is innately tied to voice, and a strong, well-executed point of view will also lead to a strong voice (Keep It Real, 2008). Examples and Observations Point of view is the place from which a writer listens in and watches. Choosing one place over another determines what can and cant be seen, what minds can and cant be entered. . . . The main choice, of course, is between the third and first person, between a disembodied voice and I (in nonfiction synonymous with the author). For some, the choice is made before sitting down to write. Some writers feel obliged to use the third person, by tradition the voice of objectivity, the disinterested mode of address appropriate for the newspaper or for history. Other writers, by contrast, seem to adopt the first person as a reflex, even if they are not writing autobiographically. But choosing a point of view really is a choice fundamental to the construction of nonfiction narratives, thus carrying relevant consequences. No moral superiority inheres in the first or third person, in their many varieties, but the wrong choice can deaden a story or distort it enough to turn it into a lie, sometimes a lie composed of facts.(Tracy Kidder and Richard Todd, Good Prose: The Art of Nonfiction. Random House, 2013) Subjective and Objective Viewpoints Pronouns reflect the various viewpoints. You can choose first-person (I, me, us, our), second person (you), or third person (he, she, they, their). First-person is considered intense, subjective, and emotionally hot. It is the natural choice for a memoir, autobiography, and most personal-experience essays. The reader is the center of attention for second-person. It is the favored point of view for instructional material, advice, and sometimes admonishment! It is intimate without being intenseunless the voice of the author is authoritarian or controlling instead of instructive. . . . Third person can be subjective or objective. For instance, when used for an as told to personal-experience essay, third-person is subjective and warm. When used for news and information, third-person is objective and cool. (Elizabeth Lyon, A Writers Guide to Nonfiction. Perigee, 2003) The First-Person Narrator Its hard to write a memoir or a personal essay without falling back on the I. In fact, all nonfiction is really told in the technical first-person point of view: there is always a narrator doing the telling, and the narrator is not some fictional persona but the author. This single point of view is one of the important- and frustrating- hallmarks that distinguishes nonfiction from fiction. Yet there are ways to mimic other points of viewand thereby to tell a more natural sort of story. Listen to the opening lines of Daniel Bergners God of the Rodeo: When he had finished workbuilding fence or penning cattle or castrating bull calves with a knife supplied by his boss on the prison farmJohnny Brooks lingered in the saddle shed. The small cinder-block building is near the heart of Angola, Louisianas maximum-security state penitentiary. Alone there, Brooks placed his saddle on the wooden rack in the middle of the room, leapt onto it, and imagined himself riding in the inmate rodeo coming up in October. No sign yet of the author- a strictly third-person presentation. . . . The author wont enter the story directly for many more lines; hell duck in once to let us know hes there and then disappear for long stretches . . .. But in fact, of course, the author has been with us in every line, in the second way that an author participates in a nonfiction story: tone. (Philip Gerard, Talking Yourself Out of the Story: Narrative Stance and the Upright Pronoun. Writing Creative Nonfiction, ed. by Carolyn ForchÃ © and Philip Gerard. Writers Digest Books, 2001) Point of View and Persona [T]hese issues of point of view really point to one of the most fundamental skills in creative nonfiction, to writing not as the author but from a constructed persona, even if that persona is taking on the I to tell the story. That persona is formed by time, mood, and distance from the events that are being narrated. And if we decide to foreground the artifice of this construction by using more stylized points of view, such as second- or third-person, we create even more of a relationship between the narrator and the narrated, a high awareness that we are engaged in the reconstruction of experience and not pretending to be mere transcribers of that experience. (Lee Gutkind and Hattie Fletcher Buck, Keep It Real: Everything You Need to Know About Researching and Writing Creative Nonfiction. W.W. Norton, 2008) Obi-Wan Kenobi on Point of View Obi-Wan:Ã So, what I told you was true . . . from a certain point of view. Luke: A certain point of view? Obi-Wan: Luke, youre going to find that many of the truths we cling to depend greatly on our own point of view. (Star Wars: Episode VIReturn of the Jedi, 1983)
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Discussion point - Essay Example ad confirmed everything with the sample I was given I simply walked away; only to open the package and find that its hard disk capacity was 300GB instead of the advertised 320GB. I inquired about the reason for the difference at the store and I was informed that the receipt I had signed indicated that it is not a must the goods delivered match exactly with what was advertised. Under the Sales of Goods Act, it is evidently clear that seller was in violation of the Act because the Act prescribes that whatever goods a seller is selling should match with the description given of which in this case is the advert that was placed on the Daily Newspaper. Secondly, the Sales of Goods Act requires that the goods sold by the seller must match the sample shown to the customer and it must be free of any hidden defects. Therefore, the seller was in total violation of Sales of Goods Act because of the fact that he sold me a laptop that did not match the description on the advert and even the sample I was shown at the store (Macleod,